Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities Shanlax Journals en-US Shanlax International Journal of Arts, Science and Humanities 2321-788X Probing into Job Satisfaction Among Community Campus Teachers <p>The chief objective of this article is to probe into the level of job satisfaction among community&nbsp;campus teachers. Job satisfaction is the state of how content persons are with their jobs. It can be&nbsp;appraised on the basis of their responses to their feelings, perceptions, likes and dislikes for the&nbsp;jobs. Divergent factors can influence the satisfaction level of the personnel in their work. A crosssectional&nbsp;survey design was adopted to carry out the research study. Twenty question items of&nbsp;five-point Likert scale type regarding the job satisfaction of the teachers were administered at two&nbsp;campuses situated in Dang District of Nepal in 2020. Simple random sampling technique (lottery)&nbsp;was used to select 52 campus teachers as respondents for the study by maintaining the confidence&nbsp;level (95%) and the margin of error (5%) from the population of 59 teachers. The collected data&nbsp;were statistically analyzed by using SPSS .The study revealed that the teachers were satisfied&nbsp;(Median=4) with their teaching profession at the respective campuses. The Mann-Whitney U test&nbsp;showed that the teachers of the two campuses had a similar level of job satisfaction. Similarly,&nbsp;there was no statistically significant difference in the job satisfaction between male teachers and&nbsp;female teachers.</p> Lok Raj Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 1 10 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4316 A Study on Customer Satisfaction towards Reliance JIO SIM in Tirupattur District <p>Customer satisfaction is the overall essence of the impression of the supplier by the customers. This&nbsp;impression which a customer makes regarding the supplier is the total of all the processes he goes&nbsp;through, right from communicating with the supplier before doing any marketing to post-delivery&nbsp;options and services and managing queries or complaints post-delivery. During this process, the&nbsp;customer comes across the working environment of various departments and the type of strategies&nbsp;involved in the organisation. This helps the customer to make a strong opinion about the supplier,&nbsp;which finally results in satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Customer satisfaction is a business term&nbsp;that is used to capture the idea of measuring how satisfied an enterprise’s customers are with the&nbsp;organisation’s efforts in a marketplace.<br>The use of Reliance Jio Sim has been increasing rapidly in recent years. It gives more concentration&nbsp;towards satisfying customers. This made the researcher study the satisfactory level of customers&nbsp;towards Reliance Jio Sim in Tirupattur District. The present study is about customer satisfaction&nbsp;with Reliance Jio services, factors influencing to prefer to go with Reliance Jio Sim. Percentage&nbsp;analysis, Freidman Rank Test is applied to find the satisfactory level of Reliance Jio services.</p> S Deepalakshmi K Antony Baskaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 11 16 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4152 Application of Emoji on Social Media: its Impact among Youngsters <p>The growth of communication shows a tremendous rise in today’s environment. The latest and&nbsp;shortest form of communication tool used in social media is Emoji. Emoji’s express the emotions of&nbsp;the user while in communication. This paper focuses on the use of Emoji on social media such as&nbsp;Facebook, Whatsapp and Instagram. The study results show that most of the users use Emoji’s to&nbsp;save time and for an easy way of communicating their thought to the receiver.</p> V Chitra R Swaranalatha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 17 20 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4193 Wooden Toy of Chennapatna, India: Beauty of Form & Socio-Cultural Reflection on the Characterization of Toy <p>Toy making is a part of almost every civilisation, and still, it is continuing as a living tradition in so&nbsp;many countries. Toys play an overall growth for a child. It developed a child mentally, physically,&nbsp;socially, and emotionally. Though it has started as a folk tradition or community-based craft, it has&nbsp;commercial and strong aesthetical value. This study focused on the Chennapatna toy from India.&nbsp;Chennapatna toy is a environment-friendly toy made with softwood, natural colour, and lacquer.&nbsp;This study critically analyses the beauty of the form of Chennapatna toys and also explore how this&nbsp;toy is made by natural substance. Like other art forms, toys also represent art, culture, religion,&nbsp;society, and civilisation. This study also critically analyses the socio-cultural issues, which are well&nbsp;reflected through this toy-making tradition.</p> Pradipta Biswas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 21 25 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4153 A Survey on Various Attacks and Countermeasures in Wireless Sensor Networks <p>The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an evolving technological base comprising spatially&nbsp;dispersed, autonomous tiny sensing devices called nodes. Today, wireless sensor networks are not&nbsp;exclusively limited to military uses such as frontline surveillance. However, they are still used in&nbsp;various industrial and civilian applications, including industrial process tracking and operation,&nbsp;robotic health monitoring, vibration and flame monitoring, healthcare systems, home automation,&nbsp;and traffic management. Nodes, such as temperature, hermetic, vibration, pressure, leisure&nbsp;seizure, or pollutant parameters, are deployed independently to cooperatively control mammal or&nbsp;environmental conditions. The compulsion of security issues occurs in the Wireless Sensor Network&nbsp;to be accepted with complete zip honesty, confidentiality, authentication during contact. In this&nbsp;paper, we analyze the security criteria, internal and external security threats and attacks that can&nbsp;be done, and the mechanism used in the Wireless Sensor Network to address such security issues.&nbsp;</p> A P Thangamuthu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 26 34 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4159 Uttarakhand Flash Floods February 2021: Perils of Under-Preparedness or Disregard for the Environment or Both <p>Disaster hit Uttarakhand’s Chamoli district on February 7, 2021, in the form of sudden flash floods&nbsp;after a portion of the Nanda Devi glacier was broke apart. The sudden floods were reported in the&nbsp;intricately linked tributaries of the Ganga River - Dhauli Ganga, Rishi Ganga, and Alaknanda&nbsp;rivers which triggered widespread panic and large-scale devastation and fatalities.&nbsp;The Flash floods damaged two power projects - NTPC’s Tapovan-Vishnugad Hydel Project and&nbsp;the Rishiganga Hydel Project, five bridges, roads, and settlements, in and around Raini, Tapovan&nbsp;and Joshimath areas in Uttarakhand. Scores of laborers working at the sites of the Hydel Projects&nbsp;were trapped and feared to have lost lives, despite all our efforts to rescue them. It is the second&nbsp;large-scale tragedy in the same area within a span of fewer than eight years. Questions are being&nbsp;asked,”Why did we not learn any lesson from the earlier disaster in the very same area”? Was&nbsp;it under-preparedness, or was its disregard to the environment or both? This paper attempts to&nbsp;find the right answers to the questions and suggest solutions so that in the future, such avoidable&nbsp;disasters do not happen.</p> B K Khanna Khushboo Singh Amarjeet Kaur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 35 43 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4194 The Research Output of Bibliometrics using Bibliometrix R Package and VOS Viewer <p>Bibliometrics is one of the statistical methods to analyze the research output of books, articles, and&nbsp;other scientific publications. This paper attempts to study the three types of Bibliometric indicators&nbsp;such as quantity, quality, and structural indicators. This study pertains to the information on&nbsp;the research growth of Bibliometric study, especially in the subject category of Library and&nbsp;Information Science published in Web of Science Database. This paper presents the findings of a&nbsp;Bibliometric study, targeting five year period (2014–2018), with the aim of identifying emerging&nbsp;research directions, the top-20 institutions, coupling, and collaboration by applying VOS viewer&nbsp;and Biblioshiny for bibliometric tools.</p> L Radha J Arumugam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 44 49 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4197 A Survey for Ascertaining Details Related to Falls on Stairs or Escalators <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, publication titled; ‘Injury in&nbsp;Australia: falls’ states that in 2017–18, 42% of hospitalized injury cases were due to falls, and 40%&nbsp;of injury deaths were due to falls. In Melbourne City, at various stations, there are extremely long&nbsp;escalators, and alarmingly, one sign previously displayed states there are approximately 2-3 falls/&nbsp;week on train station escalators.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: The aim of the survey was to ascertain the percentage of people who’ve fallen&nbsp;downstairs and escalators.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Distribution of a general convenience survey [n=125] was performed to ascertain the&nbsp;percentage of people who’ve fallen downstairs and escalators. Additional questions related to rain,&nbsp;high-risk footwear, poor lighting, and how many falls they have had. Following that, regardless of&nbsp;whether or not they’d had a fall, questions then focused on whether they had a fear of falling and&nbsp;whether they felt uncomfortable around crowds on stairs or escalators.<br><strong>Results and Discussion</strong>: Completed survey forms were eighty-two in total. 29% of people had&nbsp;fallen, with 16% of those people indicating rain, 16% in either high heels or thongs, while 25%&nbsp;indicated poor visibility. Of those who had fallen, the estimate of the number of falls down stairs or&nbsp;escalators ranged from 1–20, with the average being three falls. 39% of respondents, irrespective&nbsp;of whether or not they had fallen, had fear, while 43% felt uncomfortable around crowds.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Falls downstairs or escalators are relatively common, in addition to a large&nbsp;percentage of people having fear or feeling uncomfortable.</p> Deborah J Hilton ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 50 57 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4205 Paradigm Shift in School Curriculum: Need of the Hour <p>The school curriculum has to be analyzed occasionally to create a scope to encompass new&nbsp;disciplines and areas to make the curriculum appropriate to the prevailing situation. The&nbsp;conventional curriculum sometimes becomes obsolete and desires substitute to offer scope for new&nbsp;areas to be included in the curriculum. The effectiveness of a curriculum depends on how lots&nbsp;the curriculum is fulfilling the social needs and the educational objectives. Our generation has&nbsp;the right to explore new disciplines and areas through the updated curriculum in education. This&nbsp;paper offers the inclusion of environmental education rationalization of education, human rights&nbsp;education, and health education as part of a paradigm shift in school curriculum primarily based&nbsp;on the need of the hour.</p> Tayum Saroh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 58 63 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4207 Hidden Riot: Investigating the Impact of Rural–Urban Gap in Afghanistan’s Political Changes <p>Afghanistan, with major rural population is of the countries that face varieties of problems for&nbsp;transformation from tradition to modernity (underdevelopment). Nowadays various social gaps&nbsp;in this geographical area have crystalized in ethnic cleft; has been originated from another&nbsp;background that the most important is the rural-urban gap. This hidden gap has shown itself in&nbsp;different forms in the social history of Afghanistan. Sometimes with a cover of Tribe, sometimes in&nbsp;the form of wealth and poverty and sometimes it rises with a cover over modernity and tradition.&nbsp;Development experts concentrate on other gaps and they didn’t pay enough attention to this&nbsp;important gap. The question is: What has been the role of rural-urban gap in underdevelopment&nbsp;and political changes in Afghanistan? In a country where social relations are generated from rural&nbsp;areas and political changes rise by using violent tools in different forms, necessitate deep socialistic&nbsp;investigations on ruling relations in rural communities that constitute the most population of the&nbsp;country. It seems inattention to rural people needs and problems led to the profound gap which&nbsp;shaped violent changes in the history of Afghanistan. Meaningful rural relations, nomadism and&nbsp;tribal culture, have led to many partitions in the process of development.</p> Mohammad Dawood Erfan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 64 74 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4213 Leslie Marmon Silko’s “Lullaby”: A Pantheistic View <p>This study highlights the pantheistic perspectives of the Native American society depicted in Leslie&nbsp;Marmon Silko’s short story “Lullaby”. The protagonist’s divine and strong attachment to the&nbsp;objects of the natural world emboldens her to face several dangers in her life. The dominant ways&nbsp;of the Western world lead the central character Ayah into complete chaos. But the superior power&nbsp;of nature forces her to face internal and external struggles. She never curses her fate but tries to&nbsp;move with the ways of the world, tells readers about her willingness to be assimilated into an alien&nbsp;culture and retains her faith in nature and its objects. Nature acts as a guiding light in her life. She&nbsp;lives her life by singing traditional songs. The ideas discussed in the study are socially significant&nbsp;in the current century because we can see how man tries to ignore power of nature and how his&nbsp;unnatural ways disrupt the balance of our natural world.</p> Babitha B. Nair ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 75 79 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4216 The Concoction of Panchsheel and Panchmrit: A New Perspective in India’s Foreign Policy <p>Post-1991 reforms obligation weighted on New Delhi to take a paradigm shift in their foreign&nbsp;policy for pragmatic approaches as India had liberalised its economy, which led to the opening of&nbsp;its frontier to the Global world. Now in the multi-polar Global world, the International Relations&nbsp;scholars question the idealistic notion of Panchsheel, advocates the need for more pragmatism&nbsp;in India’s Foreign Policy which coincides with the emergence of Panchamrit proposed by the&nbsp;National Executive of Bharatiya Janata Party in 2015, to replace Panchsheel. The study aims&nbsp;to understand the philosophical distinction between Panchsheel and Panchamrit, how they could&nbsp;be as a strategic resolve and restraint respectively in India’s Foreign Policy than ‘the debate&nbsp;of replacement’. In the context of concocting ‘the Panchsheel and Panchamrit’ in the external&nbsp;affairs relations, how could India steer with this concoction to become a stabilising power? This&nbsp;paper advocates for the middle path between the two and such concoction intends to bring ‘Liberal&nbsp;Realism’ of British School of International Relations into India’s Foreign Policy.</p> Sushri Sangita Barik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 80 88 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4221 Challenges of Writing Dissertation among University Students: Based on South Eastern University of Sri Lanka <p>The undergraduates of Bachelor of Arts Honours degree have to write a dissertation in their&nbsp;fields. When they write it, they have been facing challenges. Therefore, this research sought to&nbsp;investigate the challenges of writing a dissertation as a requirement of the specialisation Bachelor&nbsp;Degree in the Arabic Language among those who are speaking Tamil as a mother tongue and&nbsp;who learning Arabic as a foreign language. This research is a qualitative study through the&nbsp;descriptive methodology. The researchers selected 30 dissertations randomly from the Faculty of&nbsp;Islamic Studies and Arabic Language, the South Eastern University of Sri Lanka and analysed&nbsp;them. The review of the documents focuses on students’ abilities to write dissertations. Also, 25&nbsp;students who submitted their dissertations were selected randomly to fill the questionnaire to reveal&nbsp;the challenges they faced. Writing a dissertation in a foreign or second language is difficult than&nbsp;writing in a native language. As pointed out in the previous sections, there are challenges in writing&nbsp;dissertations such as the influence of the Tamil language, Lack of knowledge in research writing,&nbsp;Selecting a new topic, Lack of reading, Experience of using the software. At the same time, findings&nbsp;of the review of the dissertations reveal that language fluency and data analysis are the common&nbsp;errors observed in the dissertations.</p> M S Zunoomy F H A Shibly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 89 92 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4231 Research Trends in Diabetes Applying VOS Viewer: A Scientometric Profile <p>As diabetes is a non-communicable disease, many scientists try to cure it in different ways&nbsp;throughout the globe. Due to the remarkable scientific growth in this area, we focus on evaluating&nbsp;the scholarly publications and their current research trends in diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes&nbsp;published by Indian scientists using statistical tools and scientometric analysis. A total of 83 318&nbsp;global research productivity and a total number of research publications from India was 2 381&nbsp;with 36, 408 global citations and the Period between 2009 and 2018. Further, the total number of&nbsp;authors (17712) and its average number of authors is 7.44, a total number of 782 core journals and&nbsp;95 228 cited references found during the research period. To evaluate data, various scientometric&nbsp;techniques or indicators were used such as Authorship Pattern (Single vs Multiple), Degree of&nbsp;Collaboration, Relative growth rate (RGR) and Doubling Time (DT) and many more indicators&nbsp;used. This study limits with Indian research output did not include world literature. We try to&nbsp;identify the information in different types of type 1 diabetes between 2009 and 2018. This study will&nbsp;help to find out the core journals for collection management and for promoting diabetes research&nbsp;and developments in future. We chose the core keywords in type 1 diabetes with full records with&nbsp;abstracts, types of manuscripts, cited references using the Web of Science database.</p> C Catherin Beula Chandran Velmurugan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 93 103 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4283 Anxiety of ODL Student-Teachers with Specific to their Background Variables <p>This present paper investigated the anxiety of student-teachers studying through ODL mode&nbsp;specific to their background variables. In this study, the investigator used survey method and&nbsp;cluster sampling techniques to collect the data from the sample consisted of 855 student-teachers&nbsp;studying B.Ed. through ODL in three universities of Tamil Nadu – Madurai Kamaraj University,&nbsp;Bharathidasan University and Alagappa University. For this survey study, the investigator&nbsp;developed and validated a tool measuring anxiety concerning the selected background variables.&nbsp;In this, descriptive and differential analysis were used to analyse collected data and to find out the&nbsp;level of anxiety and significant difference in their anxiety specific to selected background variables&nbsp;among the student-teachers studying B.Ed. through ODL mode were analysed for the educational&nbsp;implications with recommendations based on the revealed results of this study.</p> R Sengamalam @ Vaanathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 104 108 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4290 Study on Socioeconomic Impact of MGNREGA on Beneficiaries in Chikkaballapura District of Karnataka- India <p>The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee act or (MGNREGA) was reported&nbsp;in India in September 2005 with a mandate to supply at least a hundred days of guaranteed wage&nbsp;employment in a financial year to each rural home whose members above the age of eighteen years’&nbsp;volunteer to do unskilled labour-intensive work. The main focus of the act is to assist the social&nbsp;protection for the people living in rural India by providing employment possibilities and therefore&nbsp;contributing towards the overall growth of the local people. The present study was attempted to&nbsp;figure out the effect of MGNREGA on the overall economic and social development of beneficiaries&nbsp;in the Chikkaballapura district of Karnataka. The study was carried out in the Chintamani blocks of&nbsp;the Mindigal panchayat area of the Chikkaballapura with beneficiaries as respondents. The results&nbsp;found the MGNREGA has extensively enhanced their social and economic safety.</p> V Konakuntla Rayappa M D Bavaiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 109 115 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4289 Structural Violence and Online Education System: A Comparative Study of Dalit and Muslim Students <p>In the Covid-19 period, almost all educational institutions in India are helping students by online&nbsp;classes to cover their syllabus according to the academic calendar. For this situation, researchers&nbsp;have done this research to examine the structural conditions and social structures that mediate&nbsp;poverty among Dalit and Muslim students and access to quality education. This is a comparative&nbsp;study with the use of mixed methods research technique. The snowballs sampling technique was&nbsp;used for data collection as well as some stock narratives were collected from students of various&nbsp;schools in Haldwani. Galtung’s structural violence theoretical perspective was used to know the&nbsp;structural condition of Dalit and Muslim students. This study shows that online education needs&nbsp;instantaneous and easily accessible technology, as online education is widening the gaps between&nbsp;rich and poor and accelerating the concept of equality. This can be improved through better&nbsp;education policies through the government and the structural violence happening with students&nbsp;can be eliminated.</p> Tehjeeb Alam Mr Afsana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 116 121 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4311 The Role of Athletic Self-Confidence and Coping Strategies in Predicting the Athletic Success of Trabzon University Athletic students <p>One of the most important challenges in sports science is the factors that influence the acquisition&nbsp;and maintenance of athletic success. Nowadays, success in sports is not only focused on the quality&nbsp;of an athlete’s performance.<br>The method of this study is descriptive and correlational. The statistical population includes&nbsp;all students from Trabzon University, which are 340 people. Cochran’s sample size estimation&nbsp;formula was used to determine the sample size, and the number of samples was equivalent to 181&nbsp;individuals selected by the simple random sampling method. The following standard questionnaires&nbsp;were used to collect information. Roberts et al. (1998) Athletic Success Questionnaire, Vealey et al.&nbsp;(1988) Athletic Self-Confidence Questionnaire and Gaudreau &amp; Blondin (2002) Coping Strategies&nbsp;Questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analysed using SPSS software, version 22.&nbsp;Descriptive statistics were presented as mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables and&nbsp;frequency and relative frequency percentage for qualitative variables. The regression coefficient&nbsp;was used to determine the sources of athletic self-confidence and coping strategies in predicting&nbsp;athletic success.<br>The results show that athletic self-confidence has a significant effect on students’ athletic success&nbsp;(p &lt;0.01, B = 0.54) and that coping strategies have a significant effect on students’ athletic success&nbsp;(p &lt;0.01, B = 0.59).<br>Therefore, it can be concluded that the more athletic self-confidence and coping strategies increase,&nbsp;the greater their athletic success. Encouraging student-athletes to participate in group.&nbsp;</p> Fatih Kırkbir Samet Zengin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 122 129 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4298 Awareness, Prevalence and Coping of Domestic Violence among Women School Teachers <p>Domestic violence is a normal activity in Indian society, where violence at home is considered part&nbsp;and parcel of life. Women have been imbibed in their minds from childhood not to discuss domestic&nbsp;violence in a public forum as it would bring shame to the family. Domestic violence is interpersonal&nbsp;violence that has shattered the lives of millions of Indian women despite their education and social&nbsp;status. School Teachers in rural India play a predominant role in building the nation by educating&nbsp;the life skills of the young generation. The study aims to find out the Awareness, Prevalence and&nbsp;coping of Domestic violence among the women School Teachers in Madurai district of Tamil Nadu&nbsp;and finds the association between domestic violence and selected socio-demographic variables. It&nbsp;is a descriptive study, and a Self- prepared questionnaire was administered to 80 women school&nbsp;teachers of Private schools. The results reveal that only 2.5 per cent of them have a high level of&nbsp;awareness about domestic violence and 68 per cent are not ready to share with anyone about the&nbsp;violence faced by them in house. It is the least focussed issue in Indian society. The study states that&nbsp;it is the need of the hour of the state and non Government organisations to address this problem as&nbsp;a public health issue to save the physical and mental health of women.</p> S V S J Arul Mari J Raja Meenakshi J Selva Malar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 130 134 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4313 Restructuring Perceptions of Geographical Knowledge and Experience Among Learners Under a Concept Mapping Domain <p>Alexandra k Transfer quoted, “The best teachers are those who show you where to look, but don’t&nbsp;tell you what to see”. While teaching merely rests on art but it connotes into science wherein&nbsp;imaginative minds are ignited for knowledge. Pedagogy and enriched content are dependable&nbsp;solutions for effective teaching and learning. Real meaningful learning is the focus of modern&nbsp;teaching which follows a constructivist approach. Bygone are the days when the traditional lecture&nbsp;method was sufficient to teach the pupils. Advanced technologies have been the replacement of the&nbsp;monotonous lecture method in Geographic studies. The pupil now constructs their knowledge by&nbsp;engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration and evaluation methods. Different pedagogical&nbsp;practices are involved, like the enquiry approach, reflective strategy, collaborative learning, etc.,&nbsp;among which concept mapping is one of the important strategies applied in Geography teaching.&nbsp;It is a graphical organiser which connects links between the two or more concepts in some logical,&nbsp;sequential flows. Concept Mapping effectively assists in achieving the learning outcomes. Learning&nbsp;outcomes are the assessment standard that indicates the expected level of learning that learners&nbsp;should achieve for that particular class. Many concepts of Geography dealing with exhaustive&nbsp;knowledge about nature and processes in nature are prudently taught with the concept mapping&nbsp;approach. These maps make a vivid picture of illustrated concepts in learners minds assuring thus,&nbsp;a rigorous and long-lasting rationalisation of content knowledge. The paper highlights one of the&nbsp;robust, innovative strategy of modern pedagogy in Geographic studies where the chain linkages&nbsp;in concept mapping provide an enriching experience of learning nature and natural phenomena.</p> Amit Vishwakarma Afshan Naz Quazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 135 147 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4308 Efficacy of Vaccine and Administration of Vaccine for all the Individuals against SARS-CoV-19 and the Variants <p>The efficacy of different designed drug for SARS-CoV-2 has been much of debate from the approval&nbsp;and till date after roll out. The data released from WHO, CDC, PHE and ICMR is used to analysis&nbsp;and compare the effectiveness of the UK and Indian made vaccine. The mentioned vaccine differs&nbsp;in raw material and fall under different category in preparation. The immune response of various&nbsp;vaccines over the mutant strains was assessed from the data of public domain. Attempt was made&nbsp;to correlate the effectiveness, mechanism of triggering antibodies and age factor for vaccination&nbsp;based on the vaccine type. The better effectiveness of certain vaccines like Covaxin, Pfizer and&nbsp;AstraZeneca (Covidshield) and the administration of vaccination differences with age factor of&nbsp;over approved vaccines asserted inductively.</p> S Vijayalakshmi K Manivannane N Malarvizhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 148 156 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4384 A Conceptual Framework for Teacher Counselors in Colleges <p>Working with a counsellor helps the student solve a variety of issues that they confront in their daily&nbsp;life, as the sessions in counselling are provided by trained professionals. In the absence of a trained&nbsp;counsellor, a teacher who has received training and practice in the relevant area can play the role&nbsp;of a teacher counsellor. The teacher herself has to undergo a phase of transition from teacher to&nbsp;teacher counsellor. Due to this pandemic situation, life has changed a lot. Researches done in this&nbsp;area shows that the mental health of the adolescent group is largely affected by COVID 19. Even if&nbsp;the present mode of education is online, a teacher counsellor can help a student if she is equipped&nbsp;with the various strategies followed in counselling. The skills which are required in the field of&nbsp;counselling can be achieved by attending courses as well as training programs conducted by&nbsp;universities, government, non-governmental organisations, or institutions. This enables a teacher&nbsp;counsellor to get equipped with the basic skills required for counselling. Also, at the same time, she&nbsp;should be aware of the professional code of ethics in the process of counselling. When the teacher&nbsp;counsellor passes through the transition from teacher to teacher counsellor, she should possess&nbsp;the capacity to understand the student’s needs and also be capable of maintaining a good rapport&nbsp;and relationship with the student. In this way, both the teacher counsellor and the student can work&nbsp;together to achieve the goals for change.</p> Jeena Madhavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 157 161 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4325 Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Efficacy of Bixaorellana: A Review <p>Bixa Orellana, commonly known as lipstick tree, is a small perennial tree with reddish triangular&nbsp;fruits. It is commonly utilised as a natural dye, which found a wide range of applications in both&nbsp;foods and textile industries. It is also used in traditional medicinal practices to treating various&nbsp;health ailments. This review aims to summarise the ethnobotanical, phytochemistry as well as the&nbsp;pharmacological potential of Bixa Orellana. It has been used for fever, skin problems, intestinal&nbsp;problems, and hepatoprotection by the various tribal communities worldwide. It is also employed as&nbsp;an antidote to bites and as an insect repellant. The phytochemical review demonstrated numerous&nbsp;bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc. The&nbsp;pharmacological investigations evidenced that the plant has excellent antimicrobial, antipyretic,&nbsp;antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. In addition, Bixa Orellana&nbsp;can be used as a photosensitiser in antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation therapy to eliminate&nbsp;micro-organisms. So, the pieces of evidence highlighted in this review will be helpful insights for&nbsp;further scientific studies for the discovery and development of novel therapeutic agents.</p> T Purushothaman K Irfanamol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 162 169 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4131 Methods to Motivate School Teachers in Afghanistan <p>Teaching as a profession has gained nobility and respect for its service to society. The application, dedication and selfless devotion of school teachers in Afghanistan to their line of work has received accolades from all quarters. Even so, it is an undeniable fact that the tedious and repetitious everyday classroom activity, lack of positive initiatives from the government and low salaries are responsible for the adverse impact on teacher’s mental health, decreasing job satisfaction levels, burnout and a major cause for their regular absenteeism. Additionally, stress due to immense work pressure affects their performance in the classroom and raises doubts about their professionalism. This also impacts the enthusiasm and interest of the students in a negative manner. It is, therefore, an immensely important issue that needs to be addressed by taking a holistic approach by analysing the cause and effect of the various factors that lead to teacher’s feeling uninspired and demotivated, be it professional or personal. It is the need of the hour to chart out programs that get educators - primary to high school - acquainted with modern pedagogies through proper training and get them enthused with policies that keep their flame of motivation burning.</p> Nafisa Hussaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-01 2021-10-01 9 2 170 173 10.34293/sijash.v9i2.4106