Shanlax International Journal of Education Shanlax International Journal of Education Shanlax Journals en-US Shanlax International Journal of Education 2320-2653 The Examination of Job Satisfaction of Teachers in terms of Commuting Time, Motivation and some Demographic Characteristic <p>Teachers’ appointments &amp; relocations may create problems for both teachers &amp; educational&nbsp;administers in centralized &amp; developing countries. Policymakers should not only consider school&nbsp;needs but also give attention to teachers’ needs while appointing teachers to schools in a nationwide&nbsp;system. Current regulations in Turkey give priority to vacancies in schools. However, this priority causes partners to live apart from each other or let one of them work in schools located, generally,&nbsp;in rural districts or villages away from the other partner or family member in need of special care of&nbsp;a relative. Teachers who work under this circumstances complain about online forms, and teacher&nbsp;unions ask governmental agencies to reconsider their priorities. Both teacher unions and teachers&nbsp;argue that this system of reappointment causes them to be exhausted and feel unhappy. This study,&nbsp;it is aimed to understand if commuting time is related to teachers’ job satisfaction together with&nbsp;their motivation, gender, seniority, compulsory duty, and marital status. Results indicated that&nbsp;extrinsic motivation, commuting time &amp; gender are significant predictors of job satisfaction. The&nbsp;findings of the study were discussed &amp; possible suggestions are given according to the results.</p> Özgür Önen Yasemin Altındal Doğaner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 1 7 10.34293/education.v9i3.3741 Can We Actually Assess Learner Autonomy? The Problematic Nature of Assessing Student Autonomy <p>This paper explores, from a theoretical basis, the difficulty in defining and assessing learner&nbsp;autonomy in higher education. Although the development of learner autonomy as a key aim of&nbsp;higher education, it is a vague and ill-defined term. As such, the assessment of learner autonomy&nbsp;within university programs of study is highly problematic. The author argues that the authentic&nbsp;assessment of genuine learner autonomy may not be possible within formal credit-bearing&nbsp;programs of higher education. The aim of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion so&nbsp;that university teaching staff may reflect and consider whether they can assess autonomy in the&nbsp;programs they are responsible for.</p> Andrew G D Holmes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 8 15 10.34293/education.v9i3.3858 The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Media on the Motivation and Opinions of Students towards Science Learning in Terms of Learning Styles <p>This study, it was aimed to determine the motivation of students to learn science according to&nbsp;learning styles and the effect of differentiated teaching practices on their opinions. A mixed research&nbsp;design consisting of a preliminary post test-tekrar test model with a control group and a qualitative&nbsp;data combination was used. The survey was conducted on 4th-grade students. 63 students, 30 in&nbsp;the experimental group and 33 in the control group, constituted the study group. The data were&nbsp;collected using the “Motivation Scale for Science Learning” and the “semi-structured interview&nbsp;form.” As a result of non-working findings, it is concluded that differentiated teaching practices&nbsp;according to learning styles are more effective for students’ motivation towards science learning&nbsp;than traditional teaching methods and that teaching-oriented student views support differentiated&nbsp;teaching practices.</p> Serkan Demir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 16 25 10.34293/education.v9i3.3723 COVID-19 Pandemic and Higher Education: Leveraging on Digital Technologies and Mobile Applications for Online Learning in Ghana <p>Since mid-March 2020, educational systems worldwide and particularly Ghana were under&nbsp;increasing pressure to use the new Digital Technologies (DTs) and mobile applications (apps) to&nbsp;assist teachers in guiding students to continue with online learning activities due to the COVID-19&nbsp;pandemic. The study is aimed at assessing the utilization of DTs and apps tools by students during&nbsp;the COVID-19 pandemic and how those technologies have affected online learning in institutions&nbsp;of higher education in Ghana. The researcher adopted an online survey and exploratory-based&nbsp;design that utilized quantitative and qualitative approaches to purposively collect data from&nbsp;N=784 students from three major public universities in Ghana. Also, the study applied Uses and&nbsp;Gratification as the theoretical basis in understanding the utilization of DTs and their possible&nbsp;limitations for remote learning during the peak of COVID-19 in Ghana. This study reported that&nbsp;the specific DMTs and mobile apps used by students in higher education for online learning are&nbsp;smarts phones and apps such as Class In, Zoom, Skype, and Instagram live stream. This study also&nbsp;revealed that Personal Learning Network (PLN) such as WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter were also&nbsp;actively used by students for remote online learning. Again, the study shows that 77.1% of students&nbsp;in the sampled three universities were fully aware of the DTs and apps utilized for online learning&nbsp;during COVID-19. Also, the findings from this study report that students in higher institutions&nbsp;identified unstable electricity for continuous online learning, especially for those students in rural&nbsp;areas, unreliable internet service, poor WiFi connections, expensive smartphones / laptops, and&nbsp;high cost of inter bundle as key challenges of using DMTs and mobile apps for online learning&nbsp;during the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, on the perceived usefulness of DTs and mobile apps&nbsp;among students for online learning in higher educational institutions, the findings from this study&nbsp;suggest that DMT’s and apps were of great benefit to students for remote online learning.</p> John Demuyakor ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 26 38 10.34293/education.v9i3.3904 Investigating the Virtualized Cultural Heritage of Piri Reis with Social Participation and Map Literacy Skills <p>In this study, it was aimed to transfer Piri Reis’s 1513 world map into an interactive and dynamic&nbsp;environment to reflect social participation and map literacy skills of pre-service social studies&nbsp;teachers, to determine the reflection of the skills from the views of the pre-service teachers and the&nbsp;information they have structured in the database. In this sense, the virtualized map was integrated&nbsp;into a geographical information system application developed by the researcher. This research, in&nbsp;which a qualitative research approach was adopted, was carried out as a case study. The views of&nbsp;the pre-service teacher’s skills and environment were evaluated with content analysis, and their&nbsp;reflection skills were evaluated with descriptive analysis. Eighteen students determined with the&nbsp;maximum diversity sampling method participated in the study, which lasted for two and a half&nbsp;months. It was concluded through the findings obtained from the views of pre-service teachers that&nbsp;social participation and map literacy skills could be reflected in various dimensions, the map could&nbsp;be interpreted collectively with social participation and map literacy skills, and cultural heritage&nbsp;could be transformed into a form of instructional technology. It was determined that the general&nbsp;views of pre-service teachers regarding this environment were mostly positive and the environment&nbsp;beneficially enabled them to discover cultural heritage, developed various skills and gave different&nbsp;perspectives. Still, some pre-service teachers remained passive in the environment. In the findings&nbsp;obtained from the database of the virtualized map, it was determined that the sub-dimensions of&nbsp;map literacy with social participation skill were mostly reflected in the form of understandinginterpreting&nbsp;symbols, finding location - coordinate, measuring distance, finding direction, reading&nbsp;- interpreting a map, but not reflected in using scales.</p> Zekeriya Fatih İneç ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 39 48 10.34293/education.v9i3.3698 Cognitive Flexibility of Students with Learning Disabilities in English Language and its Relationship to some Variables <p>This study aimed at exploring the level of cognitive flexibility of students with learning disabilities&nbsp;in the English language in Irbid Governorate and its relationship with the variables of gender and&nbsp;school grade. The study sample consisted of (380) male and female students in the elementary&nbsp;stage. The study used the descriptive approach and developed the cognitive flexibility scale as&nbsp;an instrument to collect data. The content validity and reliability of the instrument were ensured&nbsp;using the Cronbach Alpha and repetition methods. The results revealed statistically significant&nbsp;differences in the level of cognitive flexibility among those with learning disabilities due to the&nbsp;gender variable in favor of males and to the school grade variable in favor of the second primary&nbsp;grade.</p> Mohamad Ahmad Saleem Khasawneh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 49 56 10.34293/education.v9i3.4003 Metaphoric Perceptions of Teachers and Administrators towards Uplifting Leadership <p>This study aimed to determine the perceptions of teachers and administrators about the concept&nbsp;of uplifting leadership in depth through metaphors. In this study, phenomenology design, one of&nbsp;the qualitative research methods, was used. The study group of the research consists of 30 people,&nbsp;15 administrators and 15 teachers who work in primary, secondary and high schools affiliated&nbsp;to Antalya Directorate of National Education and selected through snowball sampling, which is&nbsp;purposeful sampling methods. A structured questionary form was used as a data collection tool.&nbsp;Metaphors were used as a data collection method and the participants were asked to explain what&nbsp;they think uplifting leadership resembled with reasons. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the&nbsp;data. The responses of the participants were classified and analyzed; the analysis was supported by&nbsp;direct quotations from the participants. NVivo package program was used to encode and classify&nbsp;the data. As a result of the study, it has been found that the metaphors produced by the participants&nbsp;contain features of the uplifting leadership by the changing management perception, such as being&nbsp;contemporary, constantly improving itself by following the innovations, trying to save organizations&nbsp;from the static structure, exciting employees for their improvement or institutional improvement,&nbsp;teaching them to dream, supporting different ideas, working in cooperation.</p> Serdar Özçeti̇n ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 57 66 10.34293/education.v9i3.3803 Improving the Basic Writing Skills of Grade 7 Learners in Filipino: An Action Research in Filipino Language <p>This action research primarily aims to remediate the low level of basic writing skills (writing in cursive, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and paragraphing) of Grade 7 learners in Filipino class/subject in a government high school.&nbsp; The researcher conducted (1) assessment of learners’ writing competency through pre- and post-tests; (2) preparation/development of writing exercises; (3) activities emphasizing the conduct of writing activities in and out of the classroom; and (4) home visitations to reinforce the teacher’s and parents’ monitoring on the progress of their children. A <em>five-point rating scale</em> was utilized in assessing learners’ outputs. An increase of 1.56 was recorded in the general rating of pre- to post-test, which shows that 80% improvement is manifested among the learners’ basic writing competencies, proving that the intervention used is effective in achieving the target of the study.&nbsp; The study reveals the significant role of teachers in arousing learners’ interest in writing and making them realize its importance. The study holds true the importance of having learning activities and worksheets appropriate to the level of learners’ needs to improve/enhance the unique skills in writing of each learner.&nbsp; Just like other researchers, this study encourages the promptly remediate the classroom- and/or school-based problems through the conduct of research for a rational and systematic way of addressing it.&nbsp; With the aid of well a documented study in all research endeavors, this will guide other teachers and school heads to experience the same plight of addressing the gaps in schools effectively.</p> Joey Ramos Cabigao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 67 71 10.34293/education.v9i3.3815 L2 Demotivation in Online Classes during COVID-19: From an Activity Theory Perspective <p>The primary purpose of this study was to investigate an L2 learner’s motivation during his&nbsp;involvement in language learning. Specifically, it was sought to conceptualize the (de)motives that&nbsp;might have an impact on the participant’s language learning process and to reconceptualize, in&nbsp;this sense, the process above referring to the Activity Theory (AT). To this end, this study attempted&nbsp;to examine whether there were any changes in his motivation within the framework of AT. The&nbsp;scrutiny of data revealed that the changes stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative&nbsp;influence on Ahmet’s language learning process. Although he was relatively motivated as he started&nbsp;as a language learner, the new changes he had to adapt to amidst the outbreak externally affected&nbsp;his learning experiences, leading to demotivation. The present paper argues how this change can&nbsp;be captured by referring to Engeström’s (1999, 2009) triangle model. Further discussions and<br>implications are provided in the study.</p> Eda Elmas Ali Öztüfekçi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 72 78 10.34293/education.v9i3.3811 Contrastive Analysis and its Implications for Bengali Learners of ESL <p>Contrastive Analysis, since its introduction as a potential predictor of the influence of the learners’&nbsp;first language on the second language and the resultant errors, has constantly been subject to&nbsp;criticism on both theoretical and empirical grounds. This once-popular approach of interpreting&nbsp;errors resulting from the interference from the native language met a gradual decline in acceptability&nbsp;as Behaviorism, the theory on which it was based, lost its credibility. Also, empirical findings&nbsp;pointed out its ineffectiveness as the predictor of errors. However, contrastive analysis projects&nbsp;have been carried out in different parts of the world to avoid errors in specific language areas,&nbsp;including pronunciation. This paper aims to shed light on the origin, evolution and significance of&nbsp;the theory, especially in designing instructional materials for the Bengali learners of English as a&nbsp;second language.</p> Arjumand Ara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 79 83 10.34293/education.v9i3.3827 Investigation of Teachers’ Opinions about Open Course Educational Materials: Case of Turkey <p>The aim of this study is to determine whether math teachers have an idea about the open course&nbsp;materials and to get their opinions about the use of open course materials. The study employs a&nbsp;qualitative research approach. The research is carried out on 12 math teachers with professional&nbsp;experience working at all two high schools in the Eastern Anatolia Region in Turkey. In the&nbsp;research, Open Course Materials Interview Form (OCMIF) developed by the researchers was&nbsp;applied as a data collection tool. The content analysis method is used for data analysis. According&nbsp;to the results, it was seen that the teachers had information about the open course materials.&nbsp;Teachers also expressed the opinion that those not insufficient and uncontrolled for such sharing&nbsp;would be unhelpful. In addition, the teachers stated that there are some situations in which open&nbsp;lesson materials are not used in our country. In addition, pre-course preparation and post-course&nbsp;evaluation, the smart board for documents and topics related to the use of video, presentation,&nbsp;animation, such as to benefit from the activities were used.</p> Furkan Ozdemir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 84 90 10.34293/education.v9i3.3861 Enhancing English Communication Skills of Thai University Students through Google Apps for Education (GAFE) in a Digital Era during Covid-19 Pandemic <p>During the covid-19 dilemma, all educators worldwide have been alerted by the alarm clock of&nbsp;urgent online teaching and learning. This leads to a curiosity of which online tools are suitable&nbsp;for the online learning contexts, especially for English classrooms where there are more than&nbsp;just lecturing, but also practicing English skills. Google Applications for Education (GAFE) is&nbsp;one of the teaching alternatives to create collaborative learning and being used as major media&nbsp;in online teaching. Therefore, the aim of this quantitative study is to explore the opinions of Thai&nbsp;university students regarding the use of G Suite Applications namely Google Classroom, Google&nbsp;Meet, Google Docs, and Google Forms, in an English online course during the Covid-19 situation&nbsp;and to indicate how the applications can be integrated with online tasks that promote English&nbsp;skills. The participants of the study were students who enrolled in a fundamental English course&nbsp;which was conducted online at the time of the Covid-19 crisis by the researcher. The data were&nbsp;gathered from an online questionnaire consists of statements that represent key indicators of&nbsp;efficiency and validity of Integrated Technology and the information is interpreted by 5-point Likert&nbsp;Scale (Strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree). The results show that the students&nbsp;have a positive experience using the applications in their online learnings. They agreed that the&nbsp;combinations of this application based on the functions enable them to enhance all English skills&nbsp;and grammatical and lexical knowledge. There is also a guideline that suggests how to apply these&nbsp;applications to create learning activities and tasks in an online setting. All in all, it is believed that&nbsp;this research will be a starting point for English teachers to use Web 2.0 tools, particularly G Suite,&nbsp;to serve the needs of the learners in the future online during this covid-19 crisis.</p> Parichat Chiablaem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 91 98 10.34293/education.v9i3.3921 The Effects of School Culture on Students Academic Achievements <p>The purpose of this research is to make a detailed examination of the school culture and its effects&nbsp;on the academic achievement of students. In this research that has been carried out within the&nbsp;framework of the qualitative research approach, the answers have been sought to be found to&nbsp;the questions “What is school culture?”, “What are the effects of school culture on academic&nbsp;achievement?” and “What should be done at school to create a strong and positive culture?”.&nbsp;The study group of this research consists of 12 students determined using a maximum variation&nbsp;sampling technique which is one of the purposeful sampling techniques and studying at a high&nbsp;school within the scope of the Ministry of National Education. Data were collected by a semistructured&nbsp;interview method. The data collected were analyzed by a descriptive analysis technique.&nbsp;The participant students have expressed that the school culture means the behaviors at school, the&nbsp;background and successes of school, circle of friends, school uniforms and social activities.<br>Moreover, the students have stated that the school culture has effects on the achievement of students&nbsp;in terms of motivation (will to study), sense of competition and their development in all respects.&nbsp;Lastly, the participants have offered some suggestions like the number of social activities should be&nbsp;increased; laboratories should be used actively and improvements should be made at the library&nbsp;in terms of number and contents of books; relations, attitudes and behaviors between teachers and&nbsp;students should be regulated and school trips should be organized concerning the creation of a&nbsp;strong and positive culture at school. In line with the findings, the researchers have concluded that&nbsp;school culture has a positive and strong effect on the academic achievement of students. Therefore,&nbsp;suggestions that would improve the school culture should be put into practice.</p> Adem Bayar Hürriyet Alkan Karaduman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 99 109 10.34293/education.v9i3.3885 LCT in Developing, Lower and Middle Income and Developed Countries <p>LCT has been a recurrent theme in many national educational policies in the global South and has&nbsp;had wide donor support through aid programs and smaller projects and localized innovations.&nbsp;However, the history of the implementation of LCT in different contexts is riddled with stories of&nbsp;failures, grand and small. This article provides an overview of the four major topics-context of&nbsp;LCT, LCT in lower and middle-income countries, LCT in the developing and LCT in the developed&nbsp;countries. The major aim of the article is to explore the status of LCT in underdeveloped, to&nbsp;develop and developed countries. For this purpose, I searched scholarly and online databases(Google Scholar, JStor, Proquest) that focus on LCT and related policies, trends, and issues in&nbsp;various countries. I used search terms associated with the various LCT topics in lower and middleincome&nbsp;countries, LCT in developing countries, and LCT in the developed countries. LCT is a&nbsp;traveling policy that has been endorsed by international agencies, national governments, and local&nbsp;innovators. As a globally traveling policy and practice, prescriptions and innovations regarding&nbsp;LCT are often found in contexts where it is culturally new and where the realities of educational&nbsp;governance and resources for schools have not historically accommodated it. Though there are&nbsp;several successful LCT projects, these are too few compared to the magnitude of the failures of&nbsp;the approach in developing countries. In a number of these countries, attempts at transforming&nbsp;traditional classrooms into LCT classrooms have failed. In a recent analysis of the research on LCT&nbsp;implementation, it was evident that the history of the implementation of LCT in different contexts&nbsp;is riddled with stories of failures, grand and small. Across a wide range of developing country&nbsp;contexts, the reports of tissue rejection as teachers and learners struggle to make the paradigm shift&nbsp;far outnumbered the stories of successful transitions from the pedagogies in place towards LCT.</p> Rajendra Kumar Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 110 126 10.34293/education.v9i3.3784 An Analysis of Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students: A Case Study of Rabindra University, Bangladesh (RUB) <p>A proverb goes that education is the backbone of a nation. No nation can step up without educating&nbsp;the nation. Quality education is achieved by the better academic performance of the students.&nbsp;Indeed, the university is the tertiary education where the undergraduate students are enrolled to&nbsp;appropriate academic excellence that can be transformed to better the nation. There are a variety&nbsp;of positive and negative factors that affect the academic performance of undergraduate students.&nbsp;Here, this study endeavors to identify the success and failure factors influencing the academic&nbsp;performance of Rabindra University, Bangladesh. In doing so, this study is conducted based on&nbsp;primary data. Convenient and cluster random sampling method has been used. Two different&nbsp;questionnaires and opinionnaire are developed for both students and faculties as the instruments&nbsp;of data collection and the 4-point Likert scale of measurement is used to analyze the responses.&nbsp;The findings show that regular attendance, regular study, hard work, dedication &amp; self-Confidence&nbsp;and Support by family members and others have a high impact on the academic performance of&nbsp;undergraduate students. On the other hand, insufficient effort in studying, lack of interest in the&nbsp;subject, the noisy and unfriendly environment in the institution influence inversely. This result&nbsp;will surely help the students, faculties and administration to design policies convenient for the&nbsp;education system of the university and the nation as a whole.</p> Ariful Islam Sanzida Tasnim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 127 135 10.34293/education.v9i3.3732 Augmented Reality in Science Education: An Application in Higher Education <p>Effective usage of augmented reality(AR) depends on good integration into the learning&nbsp;environment. Based on a qualitative research approach, this study investigates the effects of using&nbsp;AR technologies in science education to support the effective use of AR. Students’ experiences of&nbsp;AR were gathered using a prepared questionnaire form. Within the scope of science education,&nbsp;AR was used in a university-level chemistry course. Using theme analysis, descriptive themes&nbsp;were created by analyzing the content of completed questionnaires in written texts. Descriptive&nbsp;expressions obtained from the written text were determined by free coding. These codes were then&nbsp;matched with appropriate themes and illustrated in the form of branched trees. The study results&nbsp;demonstrated that AR is an optimal tool for teaching abstract subjects that do not feature direct&nbsp;observation and examination in science education. Students also have positive opinions about the&nbsp;use of AR in other courses in science education. Another important result from this study revealed&nbsp;that AR software interfaces require improvements to be suitable as teaching material. In addition,&nbsp;several recommendations have been presented for the better integration of AR into the learning&nbsp;environment.</p> Ozkan Yilmaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 136 148 10.34293/education.v9i3.3907 Technology and Education - Prospects of a Future Classroom <p>In an age where everything has become more Visual and access to technology and its devices&nbsp;has increased significantly, there is a need to bring about a radical change in how education is&nbsp;imparted and delivered. Using modern age technology, we can not only save resources and time&nbsp;but also make learning more interactive and attractive. This research study was undertaken to&nbsp;ascertain which methodology of teaching works best in the modern-day scenario. Two studies were&nbsp;undertaken.<br>In the first study, a test was conducted on a group of 40 students of the school who were experimented&nbsp;with by delivering lessons in both modern and traditional teaching methods. After analyzing the&nbsp;results, it was observed that the modern way of teaching is a better source of imparting knowledge&nbsp;as it engages the students and makes them want to learn more.&nbsp;<br>In the second study, increased use of the internet and a subsequent rise in online education portals&nbsp;is observed, thereby proving that the modern way of teaching holds the key to a better future in the&nbsp;field of education.</p> Sonali Bhandari Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 149 154 10.34293/education.v9i3.3839 Using Memes in the Language Classroom <p>Teaching vocabulary is a big challenge for teachers, and also a huge difficulty for students is to&nbsp;remember the vocabulary items. The main purpose of this study is to create an enjoyable learning&nbsp;and teaching environment to help students revise certain vocabulary items and make students&nbsp;have fun by being creative. In that, memes are trendy phenomena which are both entertaining&nbsp;and creative way of expressing one’s feelings on one topic. In this study, memes were used for&nbsp;vocabulary revision. To see its effect on vocabulary recall, a quiz was conducted before and after&nbsp;the experiment. To determine its effect on students’ opinions, a feedback form was also applied&nbsp;after the experiment. The results show that the use of memes affected the vocabulary recall of the&nbsp;Medicine students positively. Therefore, they could be used as one of the strategies to create an&nbsp;innovative learning and teaching process.</p> Nurda Karadeniz Kayali Aslı Altuntaş ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 155 160 10.34293/education.v9i3.3908 Emergency Remote Education Experiences of Teachers during the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Phenomenological Research <p>The purpose of the study is to examine teachers’ experiences of Emergency Remote Education&nbsp;(ERE) during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study was designed in the qualitative approach and as&nbsp;the research method, “phenomenology” was used. The sample of the study consists of 12 teachers&nbsp;selected by the criterion sampling method. The interview technique was used to collect data. The&nbsp;data were collected through a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. The&nbsp;data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The study results showed that the ERE activity&nbsp;that teachers experienced the most was the online lessons. Teachers have done the ERE activities&nbsp;through various applications such as EIN (Education Information Network), Zoom, Whatsapp,&nbsp;Youtube. Teachers emphasized that ERE was ineffective due to low student participation, insufficient&nbsp;infrastructure, lack of responsibility and motivation for learning, low ICT competency of students&nbsp;and teachers, low socioeconomic status, and inappropriateness of planning and curriculums.&nbsp;In addition, teachers stated that education in the Covid-19 pandemic process should be done in&nbsp;diluted classrooms, hybrid or face to face. It is concluded that the lack of infrastructure, lack of&nbsp;responsibility and motivation for learning created inequality of opportunity for participation in&nbsp;ERE. The lack of infrastructure was mostly due to students being in the low socioeconomic group.&nbsp;In addition, students’ learning responsibility and motivation are very important in the effectiveness&nbsp;of ERE.</p> Mehmet Eroğlu Cem Şenol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 161 172 10.34293/education.v9i3.3918 Designing Courses that Entertain Multi-Goals: Rationale and Practice <p>The present century is characterized by the speed and influx of information. Given that everyday&nbsp;life both at home and work is flowing at head-spinning speed, the time comes fore as a crucial&nbsp;entity to process mountains of information produced and transmitted to the furthest places in the&nbsp;world with a simple click. In brief, time is a precious treasure that needs to be kept safe and&nbsp;spent wisely. This article reports on a study that explored the possibilities as to how teaching&nbsp;time and the course content could be designed more efficiently in a freshman conversation skills&nbsp;course offered to the prospective English language teachers at a state university in Turkey. The&nbsp;course content was constructed based on an initial needs analysis conducted by their searcher.&nbsp;As a partial requirement of the final exam, the students were asked to prepare a five-minute oral&nbsp;presentation on a quotation or a universal code of values of their choice. The rubric for evaluation&nbsp;and the outline of the oral presentation were both negotiated with the students in detail. Following&nbsp;their presentation, the students were asked to answer two open-ended questions eliciting their&nbsp;opinions about their experiences. The content analysis of the collected data revealed that the&nbsp;students improved research and digital literacy skills. They also established collaboration with&nbsp;their classmates, retained vocabulary items and overcame anxiety issues.</p> Oya Tunaboylu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 173 178 10.34293/education.v9i3.4038 Digital Pedagogy for Sustainable Learning <p>Digital pedagogy is essential now as the entire world moves towards digitalization in all fields.&nbsp;Technology has influenced a lot on learning and resulted in the development of digital pedagogy,&nbsp;which has become a vital part of today’s world. This paper focuses on the influence and benefits of&nbsp;digital pedagogy for sustainable learning. The multifaceted nature that supports the developing idea&nbsp;of sustainable learning is viable for collaborating and networking interdisciplinary. Introduction&nbsp;of common goals, shared values and means for sustainability become challenging to achieve until&nbsp;a rapid or fast advancement on data innovation and information technology, digital learning, and&nbsp;worldwide access to data, information communication technologies (ICT) and development of selforganized&nbsp;socio-technical networks. Another dimension for innovation is ‘Susthingsout’, which&nbsp;refers to a creative pedagogy with an enhanced teaching platform, improved e-magazine and virtual&nbsp;e-learning platforms. The word ‘Susthingsout’ means to uphold, encourage, and instill sustainable&nbsp;learning through the extensive and broad curriculum to the undergraduate course and various&nbsp;campus-based activities. In this regard, ‘Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)’ bridges&nbsp;the gap between the traditional and contemporary era that receives global acceptance and global&nbsp;reach. The present study outlines how contemporary platforms developed with unified efforts by&nbsp;combining experts, professionals, academicians, practitioners, learners and curriculum as a result&nbsp;of blended application on theory and practical knowledge and augments students’ employability.&nbsp;The study aims to examine the viability of academic practice, skills beyond disciplines, the&nbsp;classroom and the institution. The conceptual model has been initiated on Digital Collaboration&nbsp;and Sustainable Learning. Therefore, collaborative learning, blended learning, flipped learning,&nbsp;open conversation, creativity and innovation are at the heart of education and it is a system for&nbsp;sustainable learning and development.</p> C Nanjundaswamy S Baskaran M H Leela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 179 185 10.34293/education.v9i3.3881 Journey into the Teaching Profession: Experiences of Classroom Teachers <p>The main purpose of this study was to reveal the experiences and problems faced by the classroom&nbsp;teachers who just started the teaching profession. The phenomenology approach was employed in&nbsp;the study since the study examined the experiences of classroom teachers who just started teaching&nbsp;by interviewing them. Sample selection was determined by using a purposeful sampling method&nbsp;to understand the phenomenon. In this regard, criterion sampling, one of the purposive sampling&nbsp;methods, was utilized in the study to obtain in-depth information about the phenomenon. Within the&nbsp;scope of the research, two basic criteria were taken into account, which is not being in the teaching&nbsp;profession for more than three years and working in schools with different socio-economic levels.&nbsp;The interviews were conducted online with the teachers at the times and dates determined by&nbsp;the teachers. The reason for conducting the interviews online was that the classroom teachers&nbsp;participating in the study worked in different cities. A total of 20 interviews were conducted,&nbsp;including classroom teachers from different regions of Turkey. Thematic analysis was used in the&nbsp;analysis of the study data. According to the results, classroom teachers in their first years, the study&nbsp;determined that teachers expressed their experiences in the context of “professional experiences”&nbsp;and “sociocultural-regional experiences.”</p> Zeynep Kılıç Nurhan Atalay Burcu Anılan Şengül S Anagün Hüseyin Anılan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 186 195 10.34293/education.v9i3.3922 A Study on Impact of Virtual Intelligence among the Students of Higher Education with Special Reference to Chennai City <p>In the current scenario, the words Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Intelligence are the familiar&nbsp;ones among students of all ages. This study analyzes the usage of virtual intelligence during the&nbsp;&nbsp;pandemic period. The students of higher education mostly adopted the present way of teaching by&nbsp;using technology. A Positive approach to virtual Intelligence is exhibited in this study. 142 samples&nbsp;were collected by using a convenient sampling method through the well-framed questionnaire for&nbsp;the data analysis.</p> S Dhanalakshmi K Komalavalli R Hemalatha S Kalyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 196 200 10.34293/education.v9i3.3900 A Literary Review on Curriculum Implementation Problems <p>The aim of this study is to examine studies on curriculum implementation problems in literature&nbsp;and to compile some measures that can be taken to reduce these problems. Considering the criteria&nbsp;of this study as a result of the preliminary examination, 39 articles were excluded and 72 articles&nbsp;were included in this review study. Descriptive and content analysis methods were used to analyze&nbsp;included studies. With content analysis, studies were examined and codes were determined about&nbsp;curriculum implementation problems. The researcher and a co-observer studied together to&nbsp;confirm codes. As a result, curriculum implementation problems were presented in four headings,&nbsp;curriculum implementation problems related to teacher, related to students, related to curriculum&nbsp;and related to schools. With this study, curriculum implementation problems can be determined&nbsp;and necessary measures can be taken by teachers, educators and administrators.</p> Gülçin Karakuş ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 201 220 10.34293/education.v9i3.3983 Covid-19: A Challenging Enigma to Global Education <p>The Global Education landscape has dramatically changed in the past few months due to the&nbsp;spread of the Corona Virus, otherwise known as COVID-19. The article highlights the pulse of&nbsp;prospective students and Educational Institutions throughout this crisis.<br>The article explores the findings, including the impact on student’s careers, online learning offerings,&nbsp;campus management and a range of other areas. Students worldwide have been dramatically&nbsp;impacted by the spread of the Corona Virus, from travel restrictions to social distancing, isolation&nbsp;measures, quarantines, campus closures and border closures.<br>Hence, the objective of the study is to assess the impact of Global Education and to determine the&nbsp;various benefits, challenges and reasons on Virtual Education against the challenging enigma.&nbsp;The COVID-19. Network issues, lack of awareness and lack of training were also stated as a&nbsp;challenging enigma; less attendance and lack of interaction were found to be the significant&nbsp;drawbacks too. Above all, the study also suggested ways to overcome the challenges. “Various&nbsp;studies have been conducted where it appears that different institutions have been adopting and&nbsp;doing well with this new learning environment” (Oblinger and Kidwell, 2000).<br>Thus the COVID-19 changes have brought a promising future of learning and the accelerated&nbsp;changes in modes of delivering quality education. Global learning can continue to be integrated&nbsp;into classes, curricular and co-curricular activities and programs.</p> S Kanthimathi B William Dharma Raja ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 221 224 10.34293/education.v9i3.3910 The Rater Performance Categorization System (RPCS) for Intensive English Programs <p>There are several student performances assessed in Intensive English Programs (IEPs) worldwide in each academic year. These student performances are mostly graded by human raters with a certain degree of error. However, the accuracy of these performance assessments is of utmost importance because they feed data into some high stakes decisions about the students and such performance assessments constitute a large number of students’ scores. Therefore, the accuracy of these performance assessments should be given priority by the IEPs. However, the current rater performance monitoring systems which can help the administrators of IEPs to monitor rater performance in performance assessment are away from practicality because they require the use of complex mathematical models and specialized software. A practical and easy to maintain rater performance categorization system is proposed in this paper and it was accompanied by a sample study. Its benefits to the administrators of IEPs and their raters are also discussed besides its practical considerations.</p> Alper Şahin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 225 241 10.34293/education.v9i3.3986 Does Gender Play a Part in High School Students’ Interest and their Application of Cognitive Strategies in Learning Mathematics? <p>Mathematics is an important component of school education. It teaches us to think logically.&nbsp;But learning this subject is not easy due to its abstract nature. Students find it difficult to learn&nbsp;mathematics due to a lack of interest in the subject. Nowadays schools give importance to grades&nbsp;and marks rather than teaching the subject interestingly. The present study was conducted to&nbsp;determine high school student’s interest in mathematics and their cognitive strategies concerning&nbsp;gender. The sample consisted of 738 students studying in 9th standard and they are selected from&nbsp;18 schools of Thanjavur educational district using the purposive sampling technique. Data were&nbsp;analyzed using t-test. The findings showed that a significant difference could be seen in showing&nbsp;interest in learning the subject and applying cognitive strategies based on gender. Females showed&nbsp;more interest in the subject and their cognitive strategies are better than males.</p> Jeyanthi Subrahmanyam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 242 245 10.34293/education.v9i3.3919 Muffled Voices from Thai Pre-Service Teachers: Challenges and Difficulties during Teaching Practicum <p>The study aimed at exploring the perceptions pre-service student teachers had about their&nbsp;challenges and difficulties that hindered their teaching. The present study espoused a convergent&nbsp;mixed-methods approach, which adopted a questionnaire and semi-structured focused-groupinterviews&nbsp;as the research instruments. The participants of this small-scale study were B.Ed.&nbsp;Students at a university in Thailand. There were 78 participants in a quantitative phase, while&nbsp;17 of them participated in a semi-structured-focus-group interview. The findings demonstrated&nbsp;around 4 dimensions of various constraints and challenges. This embodied: communication&nbsp;factors, instructional factors, student-related factors, and support-related factors. Based on One-&nbsp;Way ANOVA, most students appeared to face similar challenges. However, pre-service student&nbsp;teachers at early childhood and primary school levels highlighted the different challenges which&nbsp;they encountered during their practicum experience concerning various teaching methods used in&nbsp;their lessons. The findings also addressed some areas which needed improvement in the teacher&nbsp;education program. Recommendations were suggested to enhance practical and effective teacher&nbsp;education among future teachers in Thailand.</p> Pariwat Imsa-ard Peerada Wichamuk Chain Chuanchom ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 246 260 10.34293/education.v9i3.3989 Privatization of School Education: Problems and Prospects <p>Privatization has grown tremendously in the field of education in India to meet the growing&nbsp;demands for education in society. Privatization of education refers to the transfer of provision of&nbsp;education from the state to private providers with the overall policy goals- (i) Increasing access&nbsp;to and participation in basic education, (ii) Improving learning outcomes and overall efficiency&nbsp;and (iii) Improving equity in educational opportunities (Pedró, et al., 2015). School Education&nbsp;plays an important role in shaping the future of the nation by facilitating all-round development&nbsp;of the student. Keeping in view the increasing popularity and rapid growth of a number of private&nbsp;schools and contributions it made to society also comes with its problems. It is equally important on&nbsp;pragmatic grounds to examine the move towards privatization and its problems. In light of this, the&nbsp;present paper attempts to analyse the problems and prospects of privatization of school education&nbsp;as perceived by parents, teachers and students with special reference to Churachandpur District,&nbsp;Manipur.</p> Mercy Lamneichong Lhungdim E Hangsing ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 261 267 10.34293/education.v9i3.3897 ‘The Indian Express’ Investigation of India’s Toppers: Seven ‘Takeaways’ for Betterment of Education System <p>The Indian Express, an English Daily, investigated the progression of 86 national school Board&nbsp;toppers (51 men and 35 women) during the two-decade of 1996-2015. The investigation consisted&nbsp;of toppers of Class X and XII (from the Central Board of Secondary Education and the Council&nbsp;for Indian School Certificate Examinations). It was published in three parts (The Indian Express,&nbsp;December 27-28-29, 2020). As a follow-up of the major findings of the investigation, this article&nbsp;proposes seven ‘takeaways’ for the betterment of India’s education system.</p> Pradeep Misra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 268 272 10.34293/education.v9i3.3850 The Role of Education in Combating Violent Extremism in Developing Countries with an Emphasis on Afghanistan <p>Education as a pervasive process has affected all aspects of individual and group life, and&nbsp;today, almost all those seeking development and reform start from all over the world. Preventing&nbsp;radicalization and violent extremism is one of the most controversial issues in the world in this&nbsp;century. In addition, it was found that some extremist groups are recruiting in educational settings.&nbsp;These findings led to a new approach to the education sector as a prominent partner in preventing&nbsp;and combating the radicalization of young people. Education faces many challenges in developing&nbsp;countries, including Afghanistan. With the change of world views, cultures and different beliefs of&nbsp;human beings, the goals of education have also changed and according to this, there is a direct&nbsp;relationship and coordination between society and education. The inefficiency of the education&nbsp;system in different sections of the society will have adverse effects and dangerous consequences,&nbsp;as can be seen from the findings, lack of inclusive education, lack of quality in education and lack&nbsp;of job opportunities after graduation are recommended to strengthen the role of education for&nbsp;sustainable development in developing countries, especially Afghanistan because education is the&nbsp;cornerstone of development. One of the most important and influential institutions, investing in&nbsp;equal education and creating a safe environment for students at different levels (primary, secondary&nbsp;and tertiary) and adopting sensible strategies can be in the process. Integration, convergence,&nbsp;peaceful coexistence and the elimination of violence between peoples and nations have brought&nbsp;about many effects and changes.</p> Mohammad Mohammadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 9 3 273 287 10.34293/education.v9i3.3830