Indian Labour Movement in the Estates in Kedah, Malaya 1945 – 1946

  • Ganesan Shanmugavelu Senior Lecturer of History, Institute of Teacher Education Ipoh Campus Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Balakrishnan Parasuraman Professor of Industrial Relation and Human Resources, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia
  • Khairi Ariffin Associate Professor of History, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia
Keywords: Indian, Labour, Movement, Estates, Strike


The Indian labour movement in the estates in Kedah, occurs within a short period of time without bringing any new changes to them. The experience of Indian labourers who joined the INA during the Second World War enabled them to join the labour movements to overcome oppression against them. The Indian labour movement in the estates in Kedah has undergone radical and militant changes within a short period of time. This change has been manifested in the form of a strike and disruption due to the willingness of Indian estate workers to cooperate with any parties willing to work with them in particular CPM. The Indian labour movement in the estates in Kedah was also stunted as they did not act individually  to achieve their goals. The Indian estate labour movement's move to accept CPM as its counterpart is a major mistake as it has brought Indian labour movement particularly in the estates in Kedah and Malaya generally towards the brink of destruction.

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